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Streptococci are Gram-positive, catalase-negative round or oval-shaped cells that often arrange into chains. They can be found inhabiting animal intestines, skin, and mucous membranes and are responsible for a variety of illnesses in their hosts. Due to its ability to produce toxins, S. pyogenes can cause Strep throat, scarlet fever, and "flesh-eating disease". S. pneumonia has a capsule that enables it to evade host defenses and cause pneumonia. S. bovis is a symbiont in the cattle rumen that rapidly ferments starch to lactic acid, an ability that can lead to acidosis in cows.
Bergey's Manual Volume 3: The low G+C Gram-positive Bacteria