Endocrine system

How do cells communicate with each other?

Not a new thing!

Principles of cell-to-cell communication

  1. Endocrine gland
  2. Hormone
  3. Target cells
  4. Receptors
  5. Different hormone, different effect

The Human Endocrine System

  1. Hypothalamus: Brain control
    1. Releasing hormones for anterior pituitary
    2. Oxytocin: milk letdown; uterine contraction
      • Inducing labor: pitocin
    3. Vasopressin (ADH): water reabsorption by kidney
      • Alcohol effect
  2. Pituitary gland: Master gland
    1. Regulatory hormones
      • ACTH: regulates adrenal gland
      • LH: stimulates release of sex hormones
      • FSH: stimulates sperm & egg production
      • TSH: regulates thyroid gland
    2. Growth Hormone: bone, muscle, fat
    3. Prolactin: milk production
  3. Adrenal gland: Stress
    1. Glucocorticoids (Cortisol): raise blood sugar
    2. Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone): Sodium retention
      • blood pressure control
    3. Androgens (steroids)
    4. Adrenaline: speeds up heart/respiration
      • Controlled by nervous system
  4. Thyroid gland
    1. Thyroid hormones (T3, T4)
    2. Calcitonin (lowers blood calcium)
  5. Parathyroid gland
    1. Parathyroid hormone: raises blood calcium
      • essential for life
  6. Pancreas
    1. Insulin: lowers blood glucose
      • Diabetes mellitus
    2. Glucagon: raises blood glucose
  7. Testes
    1. Testosterone: male secondary sex characteristics, spermatogenesis
  8. Ovaries
    1. Estrogen: female secondary sex characteristics, oogenesis
      • HRT
    2. Progesterone: maintain uterine lining
  9. Pineal gland
    1. Melatonin: circadian rhythms