Immune System

Body defenses

  1. Barriers: Keep out!
  2. Inflammation: getting there
  3. Phagocytosis: engulfing invaders
  4. Humoral immunity: antibodies
  5. Cell-mediated immunity: infected cells, cancers

Immune system cells

  1. White blood cells
    1. Neutrophils
    2. Monocytes
    3. Eosinophils
    4. Basophils
    5. Lymphocytes
      1. B - Lymphocytes
        • Memory cells
        • Plasma cells
      2. T - lymphocytes
        • Helper T cells
        • Cytotoxic T cells
        • Natural Killer cells
  2. Tissue macrophages
  3. Mast cells

Immune system chemicals

  1. Immunoglobulins (antibodies)
  2. Complement
  3. Cytokines
  4. Histamine: inflammation & allergies
  5. External secretions

Immune Response

  1. Primary immune response
  2. Secondary immune response
    1. Vaccination

Immune system disorders

  1. Allergies
  2. Autoimmunity
  3. Immunodeficiency

Excretory System

  1. Functions of the excretory system
    1. Get rid of metabolic wastes
    2. Balance blood pH
    3. Regulate salt balance
  2. Excretory systems
    1. Insects: Malpighian tubules
    2. Earthworms: Metanephridia
    3. Flatworms: Flame cells
    4. Vertebrates: Kidney
  3. The vertebrate excretory system
    1. Urethra
    2. Urinary bladder
    3. Ureter
    4. Kidney
    5. Nephrons
  4. Functions of the kidney
    1. Filtration
    2. Reabsorption
    3. Secretion