Review Questions

These questions are designed to help you  in preparing for your exam. However, they do not represent the exact content of the lectures or of the exam questions themselves. Some hints for studying:

  1. All living organisms fall into 3 domains. Can you name them? 
  2. Name the steps of the scientific method. Which of the following is NOT a part of the scientific method?
  3. Can you give an example of an ecosystemWhat are some other areas of Biology?
  4. What are the 4 types of organic chemicals found in cells? What is each of these made up of? Give some specific examples for each category. 
  5. If acid rain has a pH of 4, how much more acidic is this than pure water? Explain the pH scale.
  6. What kind of bonds are formed between individual water molecules? Name some other kinds of bonds and give examples.
  7. Distinguish: ion, atom, isotope, molecule, compound, electron, proton, neutron, element
  8. What is the function of the following parts of the cell?
    1. Nucleus
    2. Mitochondria
    3. Endoplasmic reticulum
    4. Golgi apparatus
    5. Lysosome
    6. Ribosome
    7. Plasma membrane
    8. Cytoskeleton
    9. Cell wall
    10. Chloroplasts
    11. Cilia & Flagella
  9. Which one of the above contain:
    1. Phospholipids
    2. RNA
    3. Proteins
    4. Digestive enzymes
    5. Microtubules
    6. Chlorophyll
    7. Chromosomes
  10. Which of the above cell parts arose by endosymbiosis?
  11. What cell parts do bacteria have that are unique? What cell parts do they lack that human cells have?  
  12. What advantage do endospores and plasmids give to bacteria?
  13. Why do antibiotics kill bacteria and not human cells?
  14. What is the role of ATP in the cell?
  15. What do enzymes do? What are some characteristics of enzymes?
  16. Explain what would happen if you placed:
    1. an animal cell into distilled water
    2. a plant cell in to distilled water
    3. an animal cell into "isotonic saline"
    4. an animal cell into salt water
    5. a plant cell into salt water
  17. Explain the difference between:
    1. simple diffusion
    2. facilitated diffusion
    3. osmosis
    4. active transport
    5. endocytosis
  18. Label the cell seen in this diagram:
  19. Distinguish between autotrophs and heterotrophs. What are some examples of these?
  20. Explain the difference between producers and consumers. What do these terms have to do with question 19?
  21. Differentiate between respiration and breathing. What do they have in common?
  22. How does cellular respiration differ from fermentation? What are the end products of these 2 processes?
  23. What are the 3 "steps" of cellular respiration? Which of these steps uses up oxygen?
  24. Name some photosynthetic pigments? What do these pigments do?
  25. What are the 2 'reactions' of photosynthesis? Explain in general what happens in each.
  26. What is the Calvin cycle? What does it do? List its 3 steps.
  27. How is light energy converted to chemical energy during photosynthesis?
  28. How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related?


Questions for Thought